Calling for an End to Torture in Central Asia on International Anti-Torture Day

On 26 June, the International Day in Support of Victims of Torture, the Coalitions against Torture in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan as well as the Association for Human Rights in Central Asia, the Turkmen Initiative for Human Rights and International Partnership for Human Rights are calling on the authorities of all five Central Asian countries to prevent torture, punish the perpetrators and provide reparation including compensation to the victims.

The authorities of the Central Asian countries have taken some steps in the right direction in recent years and pledged to take further positive measures. For example, Kazakhstan and Tajikistan improved legislation on safeguards against torture in detention and in February 2017 the Prosecutor General's Office of Kazakhstan presented its strategy entitled “Towards a Society without Torture" and a plan of comprehensive measures including independent investigation of all cases of torture. In Kyrgyzstan the Coordinating Council for Human Rights under the Government developed a draft Action Plan for the implementation of the principles of the Istanbul Protocol for 2017-2020, which aims to improve investigation into alleged cases of torture and ill-treatment. In Turkmenistan, positive legislative steps include the criminalization of torture and provisions for independent medical examinations of prisoners. In Uzbekistan President Shavkat Mirziyoyev signed the law “on the Ministry of Internal Affairs“forbidding law enforcement officials to use torture or ill-treatment, as well as legislation to introduce video and audio recording of interrogations of criminal suspects by 2018.

Some of these positive changes have yet to be implemented in practice and other major challenges remain. Torture and ill-treatment continue to constitute a serious problem in Central Asia. In 2016 the NGO Coalitions against Torture registered 163 new cases of torture or ill-treatment in Kazakhstan, 112 new cases in Kyrgyzstan, and 57 cases in Tajikistan.  It is believed that these figures only reflect the tip of the iceberg since many victims of torture and their relatives refrain from lodging complaints for fear of reprisals or because they have lost hope of attaining justice. Given the closed nature of the countries of Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan it is difficult to establish estimates of incidents of torture and ill-treatment. However, independent sources from Turkmenistan report that the practice of torture and ill-treatment remains widespread and results from a survey by the Turkmen International Lawyers’ Association indicate that 90 percent of people detained by law enforcement bodies are subjected to psychological or physical pressure. In Uzbekistan the practice of torture continues to be routinely used, as evidenced by the numerous statements of victims and former prisoners received by AHRCA over the past year.

In all five countries investigations into torture and ill-treatment are rarely conducted effectively and none of them has set up an independent body to investigate complaints. Tajikistan has awarded compensation to victims in five cases, which is a positive step, but the amounts awarded have been neither fair nor adequate. Kazakhstani law enforcement and prison officials attempt to obstruct the registration of torture complaints by warning victims that they will be held criminally responsible if they provide false information. In Kyrgyzstan, officials of the Prosecutor General’s office have stated their intent to initiate criminal proceedings against victims of torture who withdraw their complaints or refuse to press charges against alleged perpetrators. In Turkmenistan, the Ministry of Internal Affairs does not register cases of torture or ill-treatment and according to their information centre there are no recorded cases of criminal prosecutions for torture (article 182).  In Uzbekistan, sources report that torture is used by National Security service officials to force detainees, especially those who have been forcibly returned or extradited to Uzbekistan from abroad, to confess to anti-constitutional crimes.

In order to draw attention to the plight of torture victims the Coalitions against Torture in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan are conducting public campaigns to mark 26 June. For example: 
  • In Kazakhstan the Coalition against Torture has published a series of individual cases of victims of torture; produced a short video about the history of the fight against torture in Kazakhstan from the ratification of the Convention against Torture in 1998; and a video appeal from Kazakhstani lawyers highlighting the eight main recommendations from the United Nations to the authorities of Kazakhstan on torture.
  • In Tajikistan the NGO Coalition against Torture has organized a campaign entitled "I am against torture, today, tomorrow, always!", in June. As part of the campaign, photo stories of victims of torture and ill-treatment are highlighted on the Coalition website; journalistic awards have been given for contributions aimed at countering torture; public awareness campaigns include screening quotes by President Emomali Rahmon in which he condemns torture on outdoor screens in Dushanbe; the work of different human rights defenders is highlighted through social media; and photo exhibitions illustrating cases of victims of torture and ill-treatment will be held on 28 June in the cities of Khorog and Vakhdat.
  • In Kyrgyzstan the NGO Coalition against Torture’s campaign includes television discussions with leading experts; a poster exhibition featuring stories of victims of torture and their families; a football tournament which was held in Bishkek on June 24 with participants including representatives of state structures, the human rights Ombudsman’s office, lawyers, the NGO Coalition against torture, journalists, Kyrgyzstani pop stars etc. The goal of the tournament was to demonstrate the joint determination to combat the harmful practice of torture in Kyrgyzstan.
Unfortunately, due to the closed nature of the government in Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan and the ongoing repression of civil society there, it is impossible for civil society to organize public campaigns on human rights issues.


Uzbekistan: 68-year old Human Rights Defender Nuraddin Jumaniyazov dies in detention

Nuraddin Jumaniyazov
AHRCA and IPHR have learned that wrongfully imprisoned human rights defender Nuraddin Jumaniyazov has died in detention in Uzbekistan. Relatives of the labour rights’ activist Nuraddin Jumaniyazov reported in June 2017 that he died in prison on 31 December 2016. We express our condolences to his relatives, friends and colleagues.

Nuraddin Jumaniyazov was born on 8 October 1948 in the city of Turtkul in the autonomous republic of Karakalpakstan in Uzbekistan. He was divorced with two children. In 2003 he founded the Human Rights Center “Mazlum” and in 2012 he helped set up the Union of Independent Trade Unions to Support Labor Migrants and headed its Tashkent branch. In January 2014 he was arrested and charged with people trafficking (Article 135.3 of the Criminal Code) along with his colleague Fakhriddin Tillayev.

On 6 March 2014 Shaykhantur District Criminal Court of Tashkent found both men guilty and sentenced Nuraddin Jumaniyazov and Fakhriddin Tillayev to eight years and nine months’ and ten years and eight months’ imprisonment respectively. Both men appealed against the verdict on the grounds that their rights had been violated during the criminal investigation which lasted for under two hours as well as during the court hearing which did not meet fair trial standards. However, in April 2014 the appeal was rejected. The late Polina Braunerg (who died from a stroke on 19 May 2017) acted as defence lawyer for the two human rights activists.

Nuraddin Jumaniyazov suffered from severe diabetes and was insulin-dependent. He was last seen in public at the appeal hearing in April 2014, during which he asked his lawyer to help obtain medicines to treat his illness.

In October 2014, Polina Braunerg was informed that Nuraddin Jumaniyazov had been transferred to the prison hospital facility “Sangorod – UY 64/18” in Tashkent for treatment. However, she was unable to obtain permission to meet him until April 2015 when she was still unable to visit him because officials of the Main Directorate of Penitentiary authorities (further GUIN)[1] refused to inform her of his precise whereabouts.

In July 2015 the UN Human Rights Committee (HRC) raised the case with the Uzbekistani government delegation, the chairman of which promised to clarify Nuraddin Jumaniyazov’s whereabouts within two weeks.  AHRCA and IPHR are unaware of any reply from the authorities on this matter.

Shortly after the HRC hearing, the authorities increased pressure on Polina Braunerg in Uzbekistan. In July 2015 she again requested permission from GUIN to visit Nuraddin Jumaniyazov and was told he was in prison colony 64/49 in the town of Qarshi in southern Uzbekistan. Officials at Qarshi prison colony told her that her client needed to submit a written request to see her – however the restrictions on communication with prisoners imprisoned on politically motivated grounds meant that Nuraddin Jumaniyazov could not do this as he did not know he had a defence lawyer. The prison officials referred to a hard copy of the Criminal Procedural Code (CPC) where Article 10 provides that in order to see a lawyer a prisoner must submit a written request. Polina Braunerg pointed out that in the internet version of the CPC Article 10 states that “A prisoner can meet his/ her legal representative confidentially at his/ her or at the lawyer’s request.” This resulted in a situation of stalemate which Polina Braunerg tried to resolve by lodging official complaints with the prosecutor’s office and the court. She soon reported receiving anonymous calls with threats of reprisals against her and her son.

Unexpectedly, in February 2017 a GUIN official informed Polina Braunerg that Nuraddin Jumaniyazov had been transferred to the prison hospital and that she could meet him.  However, when she got there (intending to pass him medicine to treat his diabetes) she was told he had been transferred to prison colony 64/48 in Navoiy region, central/northwestern Uzbekistan. The Navoiy prison colony officials informed her that they had no such prisoner there.

At no point did the authorities inform Nurradin Jumaniyazov’s lawyer that he had died two months previously. Given the pattern of harassment by the Uzbekistani authorities of relatives of prisoners, we do not exclude the possibility that Nurradin Jumaniyazov’s family had come under pressure from the authorities to keep silent about his death and not even inform his defence lawyer.

UN standards clearly set out in the Body of Principles for the Protection of All Persons under Any Form of Detention or Imprisonment that all imprisoned persons “shall be treated in a humane manner and with respect for the inherent dignity of the human person“[2] ; that an imprisoned person “shall be entitled to communicate and consult with his legal counsel“[3] and that medical care and treatment shall be provided whenever necessary and free of charge.[4]

AHRCA and IPHR are concerned that the Uzbekistani authorities failed to adhere to these international standards in Nuraddin Jumaniyazov’s case, and in fact obstructed his right to see his lawyer and to receive the necessary medical care. The treatment of Nuraddin Jumaniyazov reflects a broad pattern of human rights abuses inflicted by the Uzbekistani authorities on human rights defenders, journalists and those who are critical, or perceived to be critical, of state policies.

[1] Main Administration for Execution of Punishments (GUIN)
[2] Principle 1 UN Body of Principles for the Protection of all Persons under any forms of Detention or imprisonment
[3] Principle 18 UN Body of Principles for the Protection of all Persons under any forms of Detention or imprisonment
[4] Principle 24 UN Body of Principles for the Protection of all Persons under any forms of Detention or imprisonment


The Uzbekistani authorities should accept responsibility for the death of Uzbek lawyer Polina Braunerg.

Association for Human Rights in Central Asia - AHRCA is deeply saddened at the news that human rights lawyer Polina Braunerg died today, on 19 May 2017, in hospital, seven days after being admitted to hospital after suffering a stroke.

The Uzbek authorities’ refusal to give Braunerg permission to leave the country undoubtedly played a role in the deterioration of her health as she was in need of urgent medical examination and treatment abroad. Over the last three years Braunerg applied several times to the Ministry of Internal Affairs for an “exit visa”, permit to exit the country given for two years, a practice inherited by the Karimov regime from the totalitarian past. But her requests were refused without explanation. Polina Braunerg complained to the Prosecutor’s office but in July 2016 her passport was returned to her and the authorities’ threatened her with arrest if she did not write a statement officially withdrawing her application for an exit visa.

In February 2017, under President Shavkat Mirziyoyev Polina Braunerg again applied for an exit visa but did not get a positive response.  Had Polina been allowed to travel for medical treatment it is possible that she would be with us today and able to continue her important work.

Polina BRAUNERG was born on 11 October 1948 in Kazakhstan.  She studied law and then moved back to Uzbekistan and worked for three years as an investigator in the police department in Almalyk before pending the next 40 years working as a lawyer.  Polina was one of the first human rights lawyers in Uzbekistan to support the initiative to abolish the death penalty in Uzbekistan.

In 2002, she met with the UN Special Rapporteur on Torture Theo van Boven during his official visit to Uzbekistan, and briefed him on cases of her clients who included victims of torture, forced sterilization and contemporary forms of slavery, political prisoners, persecuted human rights defenders and independent journalists.  Even when her personal safety was at risk, she raised issues of human rights violations in Uzbekistan and provided invaluable information to international human rights bodies. Polina represented several well-known civil society activists who were subjected to political repression, including imprisoned human rights activists Fakhriddin Tillayev and Nuraddin Djumaniyazov, as well as former political prisoners Murad Djuraev and Muhammad Bejhanov.

She continued her human rights work, despite the difficult conditions in Uzbekistan, where she was often subjected to harassment by the authorities because of her professional activities, as they attempted to isolate her from the outside world, three times refusing her permission to travel to attend the OSCE Human Dimension civil society conference from 2014 to 2016.  The ban on Polina Braunerg going abroad for treatment, her isolation, persecution and the pressure on her by law enforcement agencies led to a serious deterioration in her health.

The pressure exerted by the Uzbekistani authorities on citizens who dare to speak out about human rights abuses, including the shameful practice of restricting freedom of movement, has regrettably not noticeably changed since President Shavkat Mirziyoyev came to power.

Association for Human Rights in Central Asia - AHRCA extends its deepest sympathies to Polina Braunerg‘s relatives, colleagues and friends.


Uzbekistan: UN Official Calls for Rights Reforms

Envoy Presses for Justice for Andijan Massacre

(Geneva, May 13, 2017) – The United Nations high commissioner for human rights called on President Shavkat Mirziyoyev of Uzbekistan on May 10 and 11, 2017, to turn his government’s pledges for reform into concrete human rights improvements and fulfill its obligations under human rights law, eight human rights groups said today. The rights groups endorsed the high commissioner’s recommendations, calling on Mirziyoyev to end ongoing abuses and deliver on Uzbekistan’s human rights commitments in full.

UN High Commissioner Zeid Ra’ad Al Hussein met with the president, government officials, and representatives of nongovernmental groups in Tashkent and Samarkand. He urged the government to release political prisoners, cooperate with UN rights monitors, and work to end systematic torture, among other issues. He emphasized that the “successful implementation” of human rights reforms could have a “transformational impact” on Uzbekistan’s future. 

“While welcoming President Mirziyoyev’s indicated willingness to engage on Uzbekistan’s abysmal rights record, the UN high commissioner rightly called on him to turn positive rhetoric into concrete action,” said Steve Swerdlow, Central Asia researcher at Human Rights Watch. “The burden of proof now lies with the Uzbek government to make good on its promises for reform.” 

The rights groups are the Association for Human Rights in Central Asia, Civil Rights Defenders, the Cotton Campaign, Human Rights Watch, International Partnership for Human Rights, the Norwegian Helsinki Committee, Reporters Sans Frontières, and the Uzbek-German Forum for Human Rights. 

Hussein’s visit was the first by a UN high commissioner for human rights to Uzbekistan. It came on the heels of Tashkent’s recent efforts to step up engagement with various intergovernmental organizations and financial institutions, such as the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD).

Hussein acknowledged certain positive developments, such as Mirziyoyev’s newly adopted Action Strategy, which includes pledges to improve public administration, strengthen protections for vulnerable segments of the population, and liberalize the economy, as well as new legislation to strengthen the independence of the judiciary. But the high commissioner stressed that “frameworks and plans are one thing, and results are another.” 

“In recent months President Mirziyoyev may have directed the government to pass laws and regulations that, at face value, carry great potential,” said Brigitte Dufour, director of International Partnership for Human Rights (IPHR). “But the proof of change is when we start seeing all wrongfully imprisoned activists released from prison, UN human rights monitors and human rights organizations able to visit the country, an end to forced labor, and independent civil society and media able to function without harassment.”

In his remarks, the high commissioner urged authorities to allow a strong, vibrant, and dynamic civil society and media to operate without fear of repression or reprisal, and to release political prisoners as soon as possible. The rights groups have documented the imprisonment of thousands of people on politically motivated charges in Uzbekistan, including dozens of human rights defenders, journalists, and political activists.

He cited torture as “one of the issues that has been most damaging to Uzbekistan’s international reputation.” And he said the government should allow independent monitoring of Uzbekistan’s prisons and other places of detention with the aim of eradicating torture and other forms of ill-treatment and urged it to ratify the Optional Protocol to the Convention against Torture. The protocol creates a monitoring system and requires that independent entities responsible for such monitoring be able to enter detention facilities at any time, unannounced. In 2013, the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) halted its monitoring of Uzbekistan’s prison facilities, citing interference by authorities.

“The high commissioner’s visit brings hope for positive change,” said Ivar Dale, senior adviser at the Norwegian Helsinki Committee, “but will only have lasting significance for Uzbekistan’s 32 million citizens if President Mirziyoyev opens the country to the credible scrutiny of rights activists, journalists, and international monitors who have been unable to do their critical work for so many years.”

Hussein also recommended that Uzbekistan cooperate with UN human rights bodies, noting that none of the 14 human rights monitors who have asked to visit the country had been allowed to visit since 2002. The high commissioner announced that an invitation has been extended to the UN special rapporteur on the freedom of religion or belief.

The visit came just before the anniversary of the May 13, 2005, Andijan massacre, when government forces shot and killed hundreds of largely unarmed protesters in the city of Andijan. In his public remarks, he underlined the importance of ensuring justice and accountability for the “terrible events” in Andijan that day. “While it is important to look forward, it is also important to come to terms with past events and ensure that victims are not forgotten and their grievances are addressed,” he said.

Before dawn on May 13, 2005, armed men broke into the prison in Andijan, a city in the Fergana Valley in eastern Uzbekistan. The gunmen freed 23 local businessmen who had been sentenced for “religious extremism” and took over local government buildings. Throughout the day, thousands of unarmed peaceful protesters flocked to the town’s central square to speak out against poverty, unemployment, and government repression. Government forces in armored vehicles and snipers fired indiscriminately on the crowd, blocking off the square as people attempted to flee, killing hundreds. Government troops then moved through the square and executed wounded people where they lay.

“There is no statute of limitations for the mass killings of hundreds of innocent civilians 12 years ago in Andijan,” said Nadejda Atayeva, president of the Association for Human Rights in Central Asia. “We fully support the high commissioner’s call that the Uzbek government ensure accountability for these terrible events, which should include a review of the criminal sentences of the hundreds imprisoned in the aftermath of the massacre, an end to harassment of witnesses to the killings, and access for human rights organizations to investigate.”


Statement regarding DOS attack on the Association for Human Rights in Central Asia's website

On 10 May 2017 the Russian version of the website of the Association for Human Rights in Central Asia  http://ahrca.org/  underwent a DDos attack, resulting in the website being inaccessible for several hours. The attack occured after the publication of the public statement "The Role of Organized Crime in the Political Life of Uzbekistan"

Access to the site has now been restored. 


Uzbekistan: Harassment, detentions and mass surveillance restrict citizens’ rights

The information for this update published by the CIVICUS Monitor, an initiative aimed at tracking civic space worldwide has been provided by International Partnership for Human Rights (IPHR) and the Association for Human Rights in Central Asia (AHRCA).
In its 2017 World Press Freedom Index, Reporters Without Borders ranked Uzbekistan at 169th of 180 countries, dropping the country three places from its 2016 ranking. Media outlets in Uzbekistan continue to operate under close control by the authorities and independent journalists are at risk of severe reprisals for their professional activities. As reported previously, the few local independent journalists who contribute information to foreign media outlets, civil society activists and other critical voices are highly vulnerable to intimidation and harassment by the authorities.
A number of recent cases of concern documented by IPHR and AHRCA include the following:
On 14th April 2017, independent journalist Aleksei Volosevich was detained for 18 hours by police in the town of Gazli in the Bukhara region after he took photos of the city’s landscape. He was careful to avoid getting too close to the legally permitted half kilometre around the prison colony in the town, which is a structure of strategic importance. Nonetheless, he was detained by police and taken to the regional police station in Romitansky district of Gazli, where police took his fingerprints, questioned his motives, erased the photos in his camera and confiscated his memory cards. He was informed that he had been detained “for taking photos without permission”, although this is not in violation of the law. He was put in a hostel overnight and taken to Bukhara police station the next day for further questioning before finally being released at midday. No charges were ultimately brought against the journalist. Volosevich has previously been arrested on several occasions in connection with his professional activities.
On 23rd April 2017, artist and social media blogger, Alexander Barkovskii, was attacked and beaten by two unknown people while taking photos of a street artist at Yangiabad market in Tashkent. The attackers shouted insults at Barkovskii and accused him of spying and publishing photos on the internet. He did not report this incident to the police.
Farruh Yusupov, an exiled Tajik correspondent for Radio Free Europe/ Radio Liberty (RFE/RL), has been harassed in what is believed to be in retaliation for his participation in an ongoing official investigation into corruption involving late President Karimov’s daughter, Gulnara Karimova. A film recently shown on Fergana regional television accused him of treason and drug -trafficking. The film also stated that since he sought asylum in Uzbekistan during the 1992-1997 civil war in Tajikistan, he should not criticise the state that has granted him refuge. This is not the first time that Yusupov has been publicly discredited. Yusupov’s family members in Uzbekistan have also been subjected to surveillance and harassment because of his professional activities. In August 2016, his brother Aziz Yusupov was sentenced to eight years’ imprisonment on drug-related charges. His family says he was forced to make a false confession and that he is innocent. Uzbekistan frequently brings narcotics-related charges against those who are critical of the regime and their family members.
On 18th April 2017, a number of unknown assailants entered the home of 75 year-old Shukurdjan Madrakhimova and insulted and threatened her. The incident occurred after Shukurdjan’s sons, two exiled journalists that work at Radio Ozodlik, the Uzbek service of RFE/RL, were involved in covering a story about the dismissal of a school director and doctor who attempted to cover up the rape of a schoolgirl. The individuals implicated in trespassing on Shukurdjan’s property are believed to be the relatives of those involved in the sexual abuse scandal. The citizen’s complaint service initiated by President Mirziyayev subsequently responded to an online appeal submitted by the elderly woman about the incident and an investigation has been launched by the Department of Internal Affairs in the Korezmsky region.
As previously covered on the CIVICUS Monitor, human rights defender Elena Urlayeva was forcibly confined to a psychiatric hospital in Tashkent on 1st March 2017. She was released on 23rd March 2017. She had been held against her will and without any court order sanctioning forced treatment of her alleged condition. Urlaeva was detained prior to a meeting with international organisations to discuss the issue of forced labour in Uzbekistan.
The Uzbekistani authorities continue to carry out unlawful systematic surveillance of its citizens, not only inside but outside the borders of Uzbekistan. In a March 2017 report, Amnesty International stated that “an environment of suspicion” prevails in Uzbekistan, which affects human rights defenders, journalists and political activists. Even when such people live outside Uzbekistan, their families in the country become targets of harassment and intimidation. Methods used to carry out surveillance include telephone surveillance, hacking private emails and publishing personal data in the public domain. In Uzbekistan, the legal framework allows for state access to telecom data and furthermore, many types of surveillance do not require legal authorisation.
Uzbek citizens critical of the authorities continue to be restricted in their freedom of movement. In particular, people with links to international human rights organisations, independent journalists, former political prisoners and their relatives, and people who have publicly criticised the authorities often encounter problems obtaining exit visas to travel outside the country. Uzbekistan is one of the few countries of the former Soviet Union that still requires citizens to obtain official permission from the Ministry of Internal Affairs in order to leave the country. The authorities’ policy has not changed since the death of former President Islam Karimov last year. Some people have reported being denied exit visas for extended periods. For example, human rights defender, writer and former political prisoner Mamadali Makhmudov, who was released from detention in 2014 after serving a 14-year sentence, has not yet been granted an exit visa.
In some cases, former political prisoners also face difficulties in obtaining new passports, which also limits their freedom of movement and prevents them from travelling abroad to undergo medical treatment or rejoin their family members who have fled the country. For example, Muhammad Bekjanov, former editor in chief of the opposition newspaper Erk who was released in February 2017 after 18 years in prison, is currently under state supervision and has not yet been issued a passport.
As previously covered on the CIVICUS Monitor, former MP and political prisoner Samandar Kukanov is on conditional release until 24th May 2017. He is prohibited from leaving the Tashkent region and is also under curfew from 20:00 to 6:00.
As previously featured on the CIVICUS Monitor, protests in Uzbekistan are rare due to fears of reprisals. Only occasional protests on socio-economic issues take place. During a visit by President Shavkat Mirziyayev to Navoi region on 28th March 2017, dozens of women and elderly from the village of Tasmachi in Khatirchinsky region traveled by bus to meet him and protest over the issues of insufficient electricity supply, high food prices and local corruption. However, the villagers claimed that the local authorities and traffic police blocked the roads out of the village to prevent them from meeting the president. The local authorities denied the protesters’ claims.


The role of organised crime in the political life of Uzbekistan

Presentation by Nadejda Atayeva at the European Parliament at an event entitled " How can the EU help in returning stolen assets?" 3 May 2017.

Dear Sirs,

Salimbay "Mafia boss"
I address those who are present here with respect for your principled position and would like to express my gratitude for this opportunity to speak before you.

Our discussion is essentially searching for effective mechanisms of eliminating the sources of corruption. Therefore, I want to draw your attention to a topic that has been studied very little so far – the role of organised crime in the political life of Uzbekistan. I would like to illustrate this topic with examples of the leaders of organised crime: Salimbay Abduvaliev and Batyr Rakhimov. They are known to the public as super-rich people
Batyr Rakhimov, 
Uzbekistani oligarch 
and debutant singer
with unlimited resources, and over many years they have managed to get preferential treatment from the Uzbekistani head state, which they have used for their personal enrichment. They maintain a monopoly over the most profitable spheres of the Uzbekistani economy, which serve as sources of corruption as well as other crimes.

According to Wikileaks, diplomatic cables of the former US Ambassador to Uzbekistan Jon Purnell state that Abduvaliev trades in public positions, whereas ministers of Uzbekistan, give generous gifts to Abduvaliyev's relatives, and the wives of state officials are seen to attend Abduvaliyev's celebrations. Information available to us confirms these observations.

President of Uzbekistan Shavkat Mirziyayev (on the left) 
and "mafia boss" Salimbay shaking hands. 
Photo from internet
Salimbay Abduvaliev 
- this photo was circulated during 
the presidential campaign in 2016
There are signs that Abduvaliyev remains in the circle of individuals close to the ruling elite in Uzbekistan. He demonstrated active support for Shavkat Mirziyoyev in the last presidential elections. A photo of the mafia boss Salimbay and the President of Uzbekistan Shavkat Mirziyoyev shaking hands has been circulating on the Internet for almost half a year. Their handshake in public is a clear signal to society that Mirziyoyev gave the criminal boss the right to engage in his “business” under his patronage and on behalf of the state. It is worth noting that soon after the public handshake Salimbay was appointed to the position of Deputy Chairman of the Olympic Committee. Salimbay obtaining an official governmental position can be perceived as granting an official license for racketeering. The existence of a relationship between President Shavkat Mirziyoyev and Salimbay makes it clear that the new president of Uzbekistan has links to the transnational mafia.

Arguably, one of the reasons that Salimbay is able to continue his activities is his close ties with the National Security Service of Uzbekistan (SNB). He carries out tasks relating to the behind-the-scenes operations of this institution. The attempted assassination of the religious figure Obid Qori Nazarov in 2012 in Sweden demonstrates that the SNB supports Salimbay as a candidate for the position of leader of the sporting organization which serves as a cover for operations aimed at eliminating opponents of the ruling regime living abroad. 

Assassin Yury Zhukovsky (on the left) 
and Umid Aminov (Tigran Kaplanov)  
Photo from Eltuz.com website
Abduvaliev acts through other figures of the underground business world, in particular Batyr Rakhimov. His name deserves special attention. A professional killer by the name of Yuri Zhukovsky was sentenced to life imprisonment in Sweden for the attempted murder of Obid Qori Nazarov. He confessed that he received $ 200,000 from Umid Aminov, (from the city of Bukhara), who is also known as Tigran Kaplanov on his Russian passport, for the attempting to assassinate the religious leader who had fallen out of favour. It transpired that for many years Kaplanov-Aminov has been on the payroll and in the close circle of the oligarch Batyr Rakhimov, who in turn is associated with Salimbay.

The attempted assassination of Obidkhon Nazarov by criminal elements at the orders of the Uzbekistani special services is not an isolated case. In October 2007, hired killers acting on the
Salimbay Abduvaliev 
and Batyr Rakhimov
instructions of the National Security Service killed the well-known journalist Alisher Saipov in Osh (in southern Kyrgyzstan). In Turkey in 2014 Uzbek special services organised the murder of another religious figure, Imam Mirzagolib Khamidov, known among his followers by the name of Abdullah Bukhari. In all these cases, the names of two people come up: Kaplanov and tycoon Batyr Rakhimov.

As he works in the field of Uzbekistani sports Salimbay and members of his network can easily obtain visas and enter foreign countries, including the countries of the West where Uzbek refugees live. The visas also provide them with opportunities to take illegally acquired assets abroad. Salimbay or his subordinates arrange Schengen visas for these assassins under the guise of these sporting organizations and their international links. 

Organisations such as Interpol, Europol and law enforcement agencies of countries where Uzbekistani refugees live should pay careful attention to these supposed sports officials and take adequate measures against them, as well as against the representatives of the Uzbek authorities associated with them.

Thank you for listening.