Letter regarding protections for Children in Bank Safeguard policies

Dr. Jim Yong Kim
The World Bank
1818 H St, NW
Washington, DC 20433

Dear Dr. Kim,

We write to you today to highlight the importance of directly and explicitly addressing the needs of children in the World Bank safeguard policies, currently under review.

The current World Bank safeguard policies for investment lending include no explicit protections for the unique needs of children. The lack of a requirement that borrowers specifically assess the impact that projects may have on children, means that there is often no examination or analysis of the risks that such projects may pose to children, amongst other groups. This results in a number of Bank funded projects which directly, or indirectly, result in significant harm to these most vulnerable members of society.

The World Bank itself has reiterated that investing in children is the clearest path to eradicating poverty. The Bank notes that “since capacities built during childhood and the youth period largely determine adult outcomes, effective investments in young people provide important returns not only to the individual and the community, but to society as a whole.” [1]

In a related point the Bank has argued that providing “[e]ducation improves the quality of people’s lives in ways that transcend benefits to the individual and the family by contributing to economic prosperity and reducing poverty and deprivation… The development benefits of education extend well beyond work productivity and growth to include better health, reduced fertility, an enhanced ability to adopt new technologies and/or cope with economic shocks, more civic participation, and even more environmentally friendly behavior.” [2]

The reverse is also true as “children and adolescents are uniquely vulnerable to even short periods of deprivation which can have lifelong and intergenerational effects. Because of the rapidity of neurobiological, cognitive, and emotional development in early childhood, even short-term deprivations can have long-term and potentially irreversible harmful effects.” [3] Furthermore, “[c]hildren and youth are among the most vulnerable to crises because of their lack of agency and, more importantly, because of the sensitive developmental milestones they must achieve” [4]. And finally, “[c]ountries with low levels of education remain in a trap of technological stagnation, low growth, and low demand for education.”[5]

The World Bank’s Human Development Network has made significant contributions towards improving health outcomes, access to quality education and other social protections for children through its research projects, its leading role in the Global Partnership for Education, and a myriad of other positive initiatives. Yet, Bank lending in other sectors undermines gains by the Human Development Network because the current safeguards do not require adequate screens for risks that are unique to children, resulting in a failure to mitigate such risks and thus many bank funded projects do harm children.
Harm to children that can result from Bank projects includes, but is by no means limited to, child labor and forced child labor, the impact of involuntary resettlement, which in many cases interrupts access to education and other vital social services, and an increased risk of experiencing violence, trafficking or sexual exploitation when boom towns are created around mines or construction projects. Children are also at increased risk of harm from the negative public health consequences of mining, power plants, and other development projects that may leach harmful chemicals into the air and water. Today’s children will bear the burden of dealing with the challenges created by climate change in the years to come. As the World Bank’s widely heralded report on the potential impacts of a 4°C rise in global temperature points out “vulnerability toward health impacts of temperature extremes varies from different subgroups of population… Children and women are generally expected to be affected more severely.”[6]
Because of the demonstrated potential for development projects to have negative impacts on children, combined with the fact that, “[g]iven the cumulative nature of human development, underinvestments in children and youth are difficult to reverse later in life, and the price for society is high”[7] there is an urgent need for safeguards that will protect children.
The new safeguards developed as part of the current review must, at a minimum, require environmental and social impact assessments that specifically contain an assessment of the likely impacts of a project on children, including the potential for violence and exploitation that can arise around a project's implementation. Assessments of the risks to children should also consider the potential for projects to have disparate impacts based upon gender. As a joint World Bank and UNICEF report arguing for the need to integrate a child focus into poverty and social impact analyses notes, “at first sight reforms may seem child neutral and not warrant additional investigation… However, many of the effects on children arise through a chain of processes set in motion by policy change.”[8] This is equally applicable to large scale development projects that may have unanticipated consequences for children.

Language requiring attention to the unique needs of children should be added to all relevant safeguard policies, including the involuntary resettlement policy, with particular attention paid to uniquely vulnerable children, including girls and children with disabilities. A new labor safeguard should be added, and the labor safeguard should clearly prohibit child labor and require respect for fundamental labor rights, as defined by the ILO, by all companies involved in the project, as well as their supply chains and related services. Speaking on the issue of child labor, the UN Special Envoy for Global Education stated “[i]t is vital that heads of UN agencies and international financial institutions must ensure that their organizations are part of the solution, and not part of the cycle of indifference that traps so many children in exploitative employment.”[9]

It is time for the Bank’s knowledge that “quality investment in an early age generates returns to society” [10] to be integrated into all of its operations. This will ensure that no Bank project results in the type of “lost opportunities for education and healthy development” that the Bank found “can be hard to recoup” making the affected children “more likely to become poor and deprived adults and risk passing their poverty and deprivation on to their own children.” [11]

Eradicating poverty begins with children, and including protections for their security and development in the revised Safeguard policies is a necessary step towards achieving the Bank’s goal of a world without poverty.

Thank you for your time and attention to this crucial issue.


Endorsing Organizations
             R. Kyle Peters, Vice President and Head of Network, Operations Policy and Country Services
             Cyril Muller, Vice President, External Affairs
             Paul Bermingham, Director, Operations Policy and Country Services
             Rachel Kyte, Vice President and Network Head, Sustainable Development
             Motoko Aizawa, Advisor, Sustainable Development Network
             Stephen Lintner, Senior Technical Advisor, Operations Policy and Country Services

             The following organizations endorse the letter:
             Global March Against Child Labour, International
             Defence for Children International, International
             Open Society Foundations, International
             Oxfam International, International
             Justice and International Mission Unit, Synod of Victoria and Tasmania, Uniting Church in Australia
             Ganochetona Foundation, Bangladesh
             Childhood Brasil
             Promundo, Brasil
             Self Help Group, Burundi
             Trauma Healing And Reconciliation Service, Burundi
             Faith in Action, Burundi
             Egyptian Foundation for Advancement of the Childhood Conditions, Egypt
             Halifax Initiative, Canada
             Fondation Des Oeuvres Pour Lasolidarite Et Le Bien Etre Social /Fosbes, Democratic Republic of Congo
             Solidarty In Action , Democratic Republic of Congo
             Association for Human Rights in Cetnral Asia, France
             Kindernothilfe e.V. Child Protection Unit, Germany
             Eurasian Transition Group, Germany
             Chhattisgarh Bachao Andolan, India
             Sanjog India
             Thanal, India
             Samadhan, India
             Society for National Integration through Rural Development, India
             Home-Start Blanchardstown, Ireland
             Terre des Hommes Italy
             Community Trickle Up, Kenya
             Women Educational Researchers of Kenya, Kenya
             Mpe Uwezo Foundation, Kenya
             Family Power International, Kenya
             Methodist Church In Kenya Disability Community Centre, Kenya

             Act, Kenya
             Terry Child Support and Youth Resource Center, Kenya
             Electroxer Kenya Ltd
             The Lebanese Physical Handicapped Union (LPHU)
             International Baby Food Action Network, Malaysia
             SAKBE Comunicación y Defensa, Mexico
             Red por los derechos de la infancia en Mexico (REDIM)
             Burma Partnership
             Kachin Development Group (KDG), Myanmar
             Bernard Van Leer Foundation, Netherlands
             Hivos - Stop Child Labour campaign , Netherlands
             International Code Documentation Centre, Netherlands
             Center for Advocacy, Learning and Livelihood (CALL) Foundation of the Blind Inc., Philippines
             Life Haven, Inc., Philippines
             Advocates for Public interest Law, Republic of Korea
             Gonggam Human Rights Law Foundation, Republic of Korea
             Diakonia, Sweden
             Terre Des Hommes International Federation, Switzerland
             Oak Foundation, Switzerland

             ChildFund International, Uganda
             Child Rights Information Network, United Kingdom
             Home-Start International, United Kingdom
             Keeping Children Safe, United Kingdom
             Mary Robinson Consultancy, United Kingdom
             Anti-Slavery International, United Kingdom
             Bretton Woods Project, United Kingdom
             Forest Peoples Programme, United Kingdom
             Bank Information Center, United States
             Cotton Campaign, United States
             p.h. balanced films, United States
             Child Protection in Crisis Network, United States
             International Labor Rights Forum, United States
             Aquinas Associates, United States
             Sisters of St. Francis of Philadelphia, United States
             Maryknoll Office for Global Concerns, United States
             Responsible Sourcing Network, United States
             Sisters of St. Joseph of Springfield, MA, United States
             International Initiative to End Child Labor (IIECL), United States
             Child Labor Coalition, United States
             National Consumers League, United States
             Free the Slaves, United States
             Gender Action, United States
             Dignity Health, United States
             Marianists International, United States
             Expert Working Group, Uzbekistan
             Ezgulik, Uzbekistan

             The Democracy School (Children's Parliament General Secretariat), Yemen

     [1] Kevin Hempel and Wendy Cunningham, Investing in your country’s children and youth today: Good policy, smart economics; Child and Youth Development Notes, World Bank 2010.
     [2] World Bank, Learning for All: Investing in People’s Knowledge and Skills to Promote Development, August 2011.
     [3] World Bank and UNICEF, Integrating a Child Focus into Poverty and Social impact Analysis, September 2011.
     [4] Mattias Lundberg and Alice Wuermli, eds, Children and Youth in Crisis: Protecting and Promoting Human Development in Times of Economic Shocks, World Bank 2012.
     [5] World Bank, Learning for All: Investing in People’s Knowledge and Skills to Promote Development, August 2011.
     [6] World Bank, Turn Down the Heat: Why a 4°C Warmer World Must be Avoided, November 2012.
     [7] Kevin Hempel and Wendy Cunningham, Investing in your country’s children and youth today: Good policy, smart economics; Child and Youth Development Notes, World Bank 2010.
     [8] World Bank and UNICEF, Integrating a Child Focus into Poverty and Social impact Analysis, September 2011.
     [9] Gordon Brown, Child Labor & Educational Disadvantage – Breaking the Link, Building Opportunity, Office of the UN Special Envoy for Global Education 2012.
     [10] Ingrid Lefebvre-Hoang and Wendy Cunningham, Children and Youth investments in the World Bank Portfolio, 2000-2010; Child and Youth Development Notes, World Bank 2011.
     [11] World Bank and UNICEF, Integrating a Child Focus into Poverty and Social impact Analysis, September 2011.


Kyrgyzstan: the case of Dilmurat Khaydarov will be reconsidered

Based on material of the criminal case № 141-10-240
It became known that on 25 January 2013 a criminal case against Dilmurat Khaydarov and others will be considered in the Osh City Court by the new panel of judges and a new prosecutor.
The criminal case № 141-10-240 will be considered in the first instance by the Osh City Court. In October, the aggrieved party has filed a petition for disqualification of the judge Pinzhamin Baybasunov and all the judges of the Court of Karasu. In turn, the defendants filed a counter petition against the Attorney M. Arynov. The judge granted both applications. The Osh Regional Court returned the case to the Karasu Court for consideration by the Karasu Chief Justice Koychubek Zhobonov, but aggrieved party disqualified him too.
On several occasions, the Karasu Criminal Court sent the case for further investigation because of defects admitted during the investigation by the prosecution. Although unable to provide the Court with strong evidence against them, the victims are seeking the life sentences for Dilmurat Khaydarov, born in 1973 and five other defendants: Bahodir Sabirov, born in 1976, Gani Sadikzhanov, born in 1974, Shukurullo Kochkorov, born in 1979, Khairulla Saipov, born in 1976 and Daniyar Kadirov, born in 1970.

Chronology of previous hearings at the Karasu Court

On 26 December 2011 the Karasu District Court ruled the criminal case to be sent for further investigation to address the shortcomings of the investigation. The prosecutor and the victims sent an appeal to the court of second instance, the Osh regional court.
On 16 April 2012 the Osh Regional Court quashed the ruling of the Karasu District Court and sent the case to the same District Court for a final verdict. The lawyers appealed the determination of the Osh Regional Court to the Supreme Court of the Kyrgyz Republic.
On 2 August 2012 the Kyrgyz Supreme Court upheld the determination of the Osh Regional Court to return the criminal case to the Karasu District Court. It is possible that the Supreme Court took this decision under the pressure of the victims. Recently, the public defender Ravshan Gapirov was attacked, the lawyers U. Usmanov and R. Muzafarov received threats.
Previously, when the Supreme Court sent the case back to the Court of the first instance, for a decision, it probably did not pay attention to the materials of the criminal case, despite the shortcomings of the investigation pointed out by the complaint of the defendants.
The Supreme Court imposes the responsibility for the decision on the Court of First Instance, fearing the reaction of the victims who are seeking the life imprisonment for Dilmurat Khaydarov and five other defendants.
The Judge P. Boybasunov is undoubtedly under a serious pressure. In late August 2012 the Judge P. Boybasunov was considering another criminal case on the riots. In this case, the victims openly displayed belligerence against Boybasunov for the fact that he did not deliver a sentence of life imprisonment. Then the victims broke the bars of the cell where the defendant were held and burned the Judge’s computer.
On 31 October 2012 the Karasu District Criminal Court held a hearing on the case of Khaydarov and others. On that hearing the aggrieved party challenged the judge and expressed non-confidence in the whole panel of the court.
The Association for Human Rights in Central Asia - AHRCA calls all interested individuals, organisations and the media to draw attention to the case of Dilmurat Khaydarov and promote objective and thorough judicial investigation.
Previous publications:
          - Dilmurat Khaydarov: «In those days of the conflict, I even thought that they will declare gratitude, but it turned out to be the opposite», 14 June 2012;
          - Dilmurat Khaydarov: «I love Kyrgyzstan, believe in its civilised future, but no one listens to me!», 14 February 2012.



Children forced by authorities to work in the cotton fields of Uzbekistan pay the price with their lives

7 children were killed in the harvest campaigns between 2007-2012, 7 came under threat of death. Age of the children who suffered is between 8 to 18 years old. The following list is only a part of the picture, which the Uzbek human rights activists were able to document.
The Association for Human Rights in Central Asia — AHRCA has repeatedly reported on the practice of forced labour of children and adults in the cotton sector of Uzbekistan. The general public are the victims of this system. And above all, children are deprived of the right to a full education. They work in the fields, in harsh weather and living conditions, and therefore are sick, many are injured, some died, but the authorities strongly block the information about such incidents.

The AHRCA published the information about the tragic events that are known to the authorities, however, contrary to the law, these events are not investigated.

1. Oysha Suvanova, born in 1999, a student of the 3rd grade (10 years old), and Abdurasul Suvanov, born in 1998, a student of the 4th grade (11 years old), both studied at school №24, they live in the Oytugdi village of the Jandar District of Bukhara Region. On 15 November 2010 they and other children were walking home from work on the highway Jandar - Karakul in the Bukhara Region, they got killed by a car. In May 2011 the driver was sentenced to three years of probation. Parents are intimidated and are afraid to pursue the litigation.
2. Ahrorjon Abdumannonov, was born on 13 November 2000 in the village of Olmazor of the Pop District of Namangan Region. He was in the 4th grade (9 years old). On 12 October 2010 the boy was walking home along the road with a cotton field, and was hit by a car near the village of Olmazor of the Pop District of Namangan Region. Ahrorjon died. Soon after the accident, a criminal case under article 266 of the Uzbek Criminal Code ("Violation of safety rules or operation of vehicles") was started. The driver was sentenced to three years of probation and was later pardoned. Parents of Ahrorjon Abdumannonov continue the litigation.

3. From 22 September to 29 November 2007, at tacit direction of the head of administration of the Jizzakh Region M.T. Anarbayev, students of medical college of Jizzakh were taken out to pick cotton in the Bakhmal area of the Jizzakh Region. A tractor drove on Gavkhar Abdullayeva, as she was sleeping on the field after a hard work. The 16-year-old girl died on the spot. Law enforcement officials did not conduct an investigation; under the threat of violence they obtained written agreement not to disclose information about the case from the parents and the witnesses.

4. On 15 September 2010 on the farm named after Usman Yusupov at the Nishan District of Kashkadarya Region the driver of a tractor Sherali Juraev, born in 1983, crushed to death Erkin Eshboev, born in 1996, by the village of Kukdala of the Chirokchi District of Kashkadarya Region. Erkin was in the 7th grade (14 years old). Together with other children, he lived in poor sanitary conditions. Until the tragedy the boy collected 60 kg of cotton a day. He had long suffered from malnutrition and overwork, so he fell asleep and did not hear the sound of the tractor and the driver did not see the boy who was lying on the cotton field. On 5 January 2011 the driver was sentenced to three years of probation. The parents, under a pressure from the authorities, refused to continue the litigation.

5. Jahongir Ergashev was born in 1997 in the village of Batosh of the Guzar District of Kashkadarya Region, he was a first year student at the Guzar Professional College (15 years old). He died on 7 September 2010 in the village of Keroit of the Guzar District of Kashkadarya Region during the harvest. He died from head injuries received due to a conflict with his classmates. The reaction of the state officials and the judiciary on this case is not known. The information on the case is carefully guarded; the parents are intimidated and refused to give details about the death of Jahongir.

6. Lochin Norboyev, born in 1995 in the village of Shohusmon of the Forish District of Jizzakh Region, a student of grade 8 of the School № 69 in the same district died on 17 October 2010. He was 14 years old. During the harvest the child developed a fever, and he received a belated medical care. Later, the doctors diagnosed him with an acute respiratory infection (ARI). Doctors did not have enough time to save Lochin’s life. The school teacher, who was supervising the children in the cotton harvest, was sentenced to two years of probation for negligence. The parents refused to continue the litigation.

7.  On 24 September 2011, a student of the 7th grade of the School № 24 of the Chirakchi District of Kashkadarya Region, Bakhodir Pardaev (born in 1998), was struck by a car when he and other students were returning from the cotton fields. Bahodir was subjected to forced cotton harvesting at the farm belonging to Eshdavlat Usanov at the MTP “Sohibkor” which owns cotton fields located a few kilometres away from the school.

Bahodir was hit at the 12th kilometre of the Chirakchi - Karshi road by a car of “Matiz” make with state registration number 18 R4564. Bakhtiyor Yakhshiboev was behind the wheel. Next to him sat his brother, a journalist of the Kashkadarya regional television, Jalol Yakhshiboev who later not only failed to report the accident to the local press, but like the driver, not even visited the boy after the accident.

The child, unconscious, first was delivered to the local hospital, where he was immediately placed in the intensive care unit with a diagnosis of rupture of the spinal cord, a broken right jaw, right arm and right leg, damaged right side of the body. Currently Bakhodir barely moves and can not speak. Treatment of the child is carried out by the efforts of his parents.

8. In 2012, in the Kashkadarya Region, 6 children were poisoned by contaminated drinking water, they developed bloody diarrhoea. The children were rescued with a great difficulty. The cause of poisoning was inadequate quality of drinking water, which is given to the children. According to witnesses, they brought drinking water for the children on the field and poured it into a plastic container, which was previously used for chemicals for cotton. It was possible to establish that all the children in the area were students of Technology College the Guzar District of the Kashkadarya Region. When a human rights activist tried to find out personal details of the victims via contacting the doctors, the National Security Service (NSS) were immediately notified and the agents threatened him with imprisonment.

In Uzbekistan the following procedure for monitoring of the cotton collectors is in place: if children pick cotton in the farm where their parents work, the responsibility for looking after them lies with the parents. If students of colleges and university students are involved in the work, their teachers supervise them on the field. During the harvest, temporary police stations open in the areas where the cotton growers live. However, no one takes responsibility for the life and the health of the children. The law enforcement agencies only ensure that people go to work every day, and monitor the performance of their work.

As the analysis of these cases show, non-compliance with the rules of safety in the delivery of children to and from the fields, poor quality of drinking water, poor medical care, overwork, conflicts with peers were the causes of deaths and injuries. All of these cases have occurred under a direct responsibility of the schools’ administration and teachers, but they themselves were carrying out the orders of the district and regional authorities to mobilise students to harvest the cotton. Apparently, therefore, no one was punished for the death of children.

The Association for Human Rights in Central Asia calls for prosecution of the heads of regional and district administrations, who ordered the mobilisation of students and have not created the right conditions for working and living in the field camps, as well as the following government officials:
          • Shavkat Mirziyayev, Prime Minister, Republic Uzbekistan, who directly supervises and directs the Agriculture and the cotton campaign;
          • Temir Shirinov, Minister of Education, Republic Uzbekistan, in whose jurisdiction are all educational institutions in the country;

          • Musa Anarbaev, Head of the Regional Administration (Hokim), Jizzakh Region (2007);
          • Sayfuddin Ismailov, Head of the Regional Administration Region (Hokim), Jizzakh (2010);
          • Mamatkul Karshibaev, Head of the Administration (Hokim), the Bakhmal District of Jizzakh Rerion (2007);
          • Akmal Abdullaev, Head of the Administration (Hokim), the Bakhmal District of Jizzakh Rerion (2010);
          • Eshbek Makhammadiev, Head of the Administration (Hokim), the Forizh District of Jizzakh Rerion (2010);
          • Ollabergan Ollaberganov, Head of the Regional Administration (Hokim), the Khorazm Region (2009);
          • Uktam Masharipov, Head of the Administration (Hokim), the Gurlan District of Khorazm Rerion (2009);
          • Samoyiddin Khuseynov, Head of the Regional Administration (Hokim), the Bukhara Region (2010);
          • Karim Rakhimov, Head of the Administration (Hokim), the Jandar District of Bukhara Region (2010);
          • Bakhodir Yusupov, Head of the Regional Administration (Hokim), the Namangan Region (2010);
          • Rustam Ismatullaev, Head of the Administration (Hokim), the Pop District of Namangan Region (2010);
          • Nuriddin Zayniev, Head of the Regional Administration (Hokim), the Kashkadarya Region (2010);
          • Shomirza Danaev, Head of the Administration (Hokim), the Guzar District of Kashkadarya Region (2010);
          • Kamol Ravshanov, Head of the Administration (Hokim), the Chirakchi District of Kashkadarya Region (2010-11);
          • Azamat Bakhramov, Head of the District Department of Education, the Chirakchi District Administration (2011)



Uzbekistan: An appeal against the sentence in the case of Murat Juraev is rejected

On 3 January the appeal of the prisoner Murad Juraev was considered. He was sentenced to 3 years and 24 days of imprisonment on 4 December 2012. This is the fifth consecutive conviction added to his main term. The last sentence was upheld.
          Murad Juraev was born in 1952 in the town of Mubarak of Kashkadarya Region. He is ethnic Turkmen, married and has three children. He graduated from the Tashkent Polytechnic Institute. Between 1989 and 1992 he worked as the Chairman of the Executive Committee of the City Council of the town of Mubarek. Between 1991-1992 he was a Member of Parliament of Uzbekistan.
         He was accused of conspiring with the leader of the opposition political party "Erk" Muhammad Salih. According to the authorities, they wanted to organise a violent seizure of power. 
Murad Juraev has been in prison since 18 September 1994.
On 3 January 2013, at 11:30 AM, the Tashkent Regional Criminal Court considered the appeal of political prisoner Murad Juraev submitted to the Court on 14 December 2012.
As a background, on 4 December 2012 Murad Juraev was sentenced to three years and 24 days of imprisonment under Article 221 part 2, paragraph "b" of the Criminal Code of Uzbekistan “Disobedience to lawful demands of the administration of penal institutions.” This is his fourth conviction under a similar article of the Criminal Code and the fifth addition to his main term of imprisonment.
Juraev is held at Tashkent prison. His defence team is preparing a complaint to the Supreme Court of Uzbekistan.

          The Appeal Commission

The Appeal Commission did not take into account the objections of the defence on four episodes, on which the verdict in the criminal case № 1-554/12 is based. The prosecution qualified Murad Juraev’s behaviour as disobedience of legitimate demands of the administration of prison UA 64/45, located near the town of Almalyk of Tashkent Region. Neither the Court took into account the state of health of the prisoner Jurayev, nor applied the amnesty of December 2012, issued by the Senate of Uzbekistan for the 20th anniversary of the Constitution of Uzbekistan.

         • The case of Murad Juraev

On 31 May 1995 Murad Juraev was sentenced to 12 years of imprisonment to be served in a maximum security penal colony and confiscation of his property. On the basis of the amnesty, the sentence was reduced by three years.
Shortly before the end of his term on 27 July 2004 Juraev was convicted, on trumped-up charges under Article 221 of the Criminal Code of Uzbekistan, “Disobedience to lawful demands of the administration of penal institutions”, to three more years in prison. The same thing happened on 27 July 2006, as his last term of the sentence was about to expire they added three years sentence under article 221 of the Criminal Code of Uzbekistan. On 31 May 2009 under the same Article the sentence was again extended for three years and four months. Among other reasons, there is a punishment for the fact that he "improperly pilled carrots", while working in the kitchen. On 13 November 2012 fourth sentence of imprisonment expired.
On 4 December 2012 Murad Juraev was convicted again - for three years and 24 days of imprisonment under article 221 of the Criminal Code of Uzbekistan.
Previous publications on this case:
         - Press Release «Uzbekistan: Murad Juraev is sentenced to another term of imprisonment of three years 24 days» dated 16 December 2012;
         - Press Release «Uzbekistan: Ailing political prisoner Murad Juraev is again placed in solitary confinement» dated 14 October 2012;
         - Press Release «It is not possible to find out the location of political prisoner Murad Juraev for the last four months» dated 17September 2009;